Reference (Articles by Title)


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The Reference Section provides electronic copies of papers, presentations and articles presented or published by us. The articles etc (sorted by title) are:

A Automotive SPICE
Bernard Londeix looks at the role of measurement in the process improvement model adopted by the automotive industry.

A Comparison of the Mark II and IFPUG Variants of Function Point Analysis
Shows the similarities and main differences between the two variants documented in the IFPUG FPA Counting Practices Manual Release 4.0 and the UFPUG Mark II FPA Counting Practices Manual Version 1.0.

All Sails Set - Towards the Shoals?
...neither sailboats nor software projects ever travel directly along the route planned. Both are subject to many forces that divert the progress actually made.

Aspects of Function Point Analysis
There are more benefits from FPA than just deriving size.

B Benefits to the UK software industry of successfully exploiting metrics
Charles Symons' formula calculates that effective use of metrics could deliver benefits in the region of £600K to the UK software industry (pub. Dec 2006)

Come back Function Point Analysis (modernised) - All is Forgiven!
In this paper, Charles Symons examines the reasons for the decline, and the main advances in thinking on the more general topic of Functional Size Measurement (FSM) which have been made in the last 15 years. Specifically, the COSMIC FFP method is seen as a significant step forward in being the first method designed by an international group of software metrics experts to work for both business application and real-time software.

Charles Symons - CAI State of the Practice An interview with Michael Milutis, Executive Director of the IT Metrics and Productivity Institute

Controlling Software Contracts
... explores the critical issues of how software contracts can be controlled, and the difficulties involved from the customer and supplier viewpoints ...

Count Me In
Every 10 years since 1801 there has been a count of all people and households in the UK... Organisations can conduct a software related census.

D Delivering Return on Investment from Software Process Improvement
Taking a purely project-oriented view of makes it difficult to relate improvements in the software development process to the delivery of value to the customer. Grant Rule looks at how applying Lean principles to the overall management of software intensive systems makes this vital connection.
Delivering value from benchmarking
Grant Rule looks at the reasons why benchmarking IT has a bad name, and what can be done to address the issues which prevent it being a useful management information.

Delivering value from outsourcing
The CMMI was originally developed to evaluate and monitor the supply of software services. It delivers best benefits when the maturity levels of both customer and supplier match.

Does Your Selected Supplier Have the Capability to Deliver?
Now outsourcing is regarded as a preferred method of acquiring a business system or even an organisation's entire portfolio, the CMM® is increasingly applied for its original purpose, as a means of supplier capability evaluation and monitoring.
E ESEPG 2007
Report on the findings of a questionnaire conducted by GIFPA at the European SEPG Conference 2007.
European Competitive Measurement Symposium 2008
Bernard Londeix gives a personal view of the proceedings of a new event on the software performance management calendar.
Estimate Early
Grant Rule explains the value of the Relative Size scale.
Engaging middle managers in improving process performance
Jill Pritchet considers the importance of middle managers in delivering successful change programmes.
H How to optimise the business value derived from IT: The CIO's perspective.
Report on the first GIFPA-TBL Thought Leadership Workshop.

Improve M&S Productivity
Helpful analysis and key action priorities for improving software Maintenance and Support(M&S) productivity

The Importance of Accurate Estimating
... Few people realise that the most accurate estimate will also lead to the lowest cost development ... of a new product ...

The Importance of the Size of Software Requirements
Size measurement methods have played a key role in helping to solve real-world problems of estimating, supplier/customer disputes, performance improvement and the management of outsourced contracts. This paper discusses the history of functional size measurement and the status of the COSMIC-FFP method.

Introduction to Function Point Analysis
Defining the size of software has been described as like "trying to nail jelly to a wall" ...

Issues with IFPUG Counting Practices Version 4
Function Points is referred to as a measurement. It is important to realise it is a statistical measure. Function point counters are not measuring systems so much as statistically sampling them


Making Lessons Learned Work
A generally accepted truism in project management, and other areas, is that it's a good idea to capture any lessons from our endeavours and learn from them.

Managing Supply Chains
If all stakeholders applied the rules of the CMMI® Acquisition PAs to all external interactions, just imagine how smoothly communications would run! Misunderstandings, blame, recriminations and buck-passing could become things of the past.

Maturity Brings a Different View
of the hierarchy in higher maturity organisations.

Measurement for Automotive SPICE
Bernard Londeix looks at the improvement model designed for the automotive industry.

Measuring SAP
We have found it possible to provide as good a service when measuring SAP as any other software.

Monitoring Project Performance
Case Study. How reliable is our functional size measurement? The answer to this question was highly significant to a Government department, their software supplier and to the taxpayer served by this partnership.
O Outsourcing: News from the Boardroom?
News of a new post of Chief Outsourcing Officer. (Improvement Champion issue 07)
Outsourcing with Output-based contracts
Many people with experience of outsourcing IT report that "performance measures and the quality of the outsourcing relationship are more important than the contract as the primary management tools"..
P Painting by Numbers: Using visible measures for lean management.
Grant Rule, pioneer of the application of Lean techniques to software process improvement, explores what measures can be used to inform decisions and behaviour at all levels; how to go about getting them in place; and how to make sure they are visible - and therefore applied.

Performance Assessment
To compare project performance, identify improvement opportunities and make good estimates for future projects, you need to assess the performance of existing projects.

Planning Counts
Measurement programmes and benchmarking exercises need to be planned and managed. For ideas we look at the 2001 Census.

Politically & Technically Correct ?
An article which goes beyond the political correctness of terms like 'man hour', 'man day' and 'man month' to investigate what they mean as a unit of measurement.

Process Appraisal or Benchmarking?
Clients often ask us, if their choice is between CMM® based appraisal or external benchmarking, which do we recommend ...

Putting 'M' in the model
A set of slides, from the European SEPG Conference in 2002, for a discussion of Measurement and Analysis in the CMMI®


RAG States
Using Red, Amber, Green status to manage corrective action.

Resolving a Dispute
Case Study. Two years into an outsourcing partnership, a major insurance company and their supplier could not agree on how to interpret the data on the supplier's performance. They needed a means to move on in a constructive way.
Risk and the CMMI
Roger Gamage looks at what the CMMI has to say about managing and mitigating risk.

The Roman Marching Camp
Using the Roman miltary's Marching Camp as a model of how to implement an improvement culture in an existing organisation.

Rule’s Relative Size Scale (PDF 244Kb)
Software products come in a wide range of sizes, from trivially small to massive applications used by national governments and multinational corporations. For benchmarking and estimating purposes it often is useful to appreciate the relative size of a specific piece of software. An appropriate scale of size categories can be based on the familiar terms used to express clothing sizes i.e. XXS, XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL, XXXL.


Setting Output-based contracts
Grant Rule draws on GIFPA case history to offer guidelines on setting and managing effective output based contracts,.

Sixteen Tactical Practices to Improve Projects
... tactics that project managers can apply locally to improve their team's chance of delivering required products, within budget, on time.

Sizing E-commerce
There is an increasing demand to size web based e-commerce applications. This paper will outline some sizing techniques.
Sizing software by counting "one, two, many": does it matter?
Charles Symons argues that it does. COSMIC-FFP is a functional size measurement specifically developed for the modern software industry and delivers far more valuable data than older methods.

Software Project Census
Details of a typical approach used and the services available from GIFPA for conducting a census.

Software Size Measurement
Undergoing a renaissance, Functional Size Measurement is applicable thorughout the development, maintenance and support lifecycles.

Sustaining Quality: A Supplier's Story
A Case Study covering the initial stages of implementing a change and improvement programme for a major IT supplier.

Tick, Tick, Timesheets!
With just your normal timesheets, your work breakdown structure and a spreadsheet, you too could soon have your project running under statistical process control.

Time More Important Than Money?
New systems frequently have to be delivered in synch with business re-organisation, or the launch

U Using visible measures for lean management.
Grant Rule, pioneer of the application of Lean techniques to software process improvement, explores what measures can be used to inform decisions and behaviour at all levels; how to go about getting them in place; and how to make sure they are visible - and therefore applied.

Using COSMIC for Real-Time and Embedded Systems
Exploring the use of COSMIC-FFP based estimation in a real-time and embedded systems context.

Using Measures to Understand Requirements
Many approaches fashionable with technically-oriented practitioners clearly fail to satisfy the need for clarity of requirements. Some even trade short-term acceleration for long-term maintenance & support costs. What is missing? What can be done to ensure that new technologies help rather than hinder? This paper suggests some simple process improvements that might have made all the difference in a number of cases.

GIFPA Ltd. 2016

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